Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, 101014, Nigeria

2 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Lagos State University, Lagos, 102101, Nigeria

3 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

4 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Nigeria

5 Department of Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

6 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

7 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo College of Health Science, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ogun State, Nigeria

8 Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Nigeria

9 epartment of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria Nsukka, 410001 Enugu State, Nigeria

10 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Akwa-Ibom State University, Nigeria

11 Department of Human Physiology, Basic Medical Sciences Delta State University, Nigeria


Medicinal plants are the most easily accessible health resource for the community and frequently the people’s preferred option. Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) is a member of the Cucurbitaceous plant used as a vegetable and in traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of water extract of Momordica charantia leaves on male Balb/c mice with acute ulcerative colitis. 28 male mice were acclimatized and equally divided into four groups. The control group was given normal saline; the dextran sulphate sodium group (DSS) received 3% Dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water for seven days; the water extract of Momordica charantia + dextran sulphate sodium group (WEMC+DSS) received water extract of Momordica Charantia for seven days before dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) was administered; the water extract of Momordica charantia group (WEMC) received water extract of Momordica charantia (150mg/kg b.wt.) for 14 days. The mice were daily weighed and sacrificed on the 15th day of the experiment. Their colon and brain were collected for evaluation of disease activity indices (DAI) of colitis, and oxidative and inflammatory damage via biochemical and histological assessments. Results obtained showed no significant difference at (p<0.05) in DAI among the groups. The WEMC+DSS when compared with the DSS group had significantly higher catalase (272.9±54.8, 175.1+12.5, and 200.2±29.7), superoxide dismutase–SOD (347.7±37.5, 223.9±13.1, and 254.9±38.8), and glutathione peroxidase­­­–GPx (28.6±2.20, 27.3±1.24, and 27.8±1.57) activities, and SOD/ (catalase+GPX) ratio (0.01±0.00, 0.003±0.00, and 0.01±0.002) and reduced hydrogen peroxide concentration (7.63±0.54, 4.33±1.28, and 5.71±0.75) in both colon and brain cytosolic fractions, respectively. Histological examination showed transmural inflammation in the DSS group as against mild mucosal inflammation in WEMC+DSS. This result shows that water extract of Momordica charantia has the potential to reduce colitis-induced oxidative damage and inflammation. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the water extract of Momordica charantia leaves has the potential to mitigate oxidative damage and inflammation induced by ulcerative colitis in male Balb/c mice. Although there was no significant difference in disease activity indices among the groups, the group treated with the water extract of Momordica charantia before DSS administration showed significantly higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities and lower levels of hydrogen peroxide concentration in both colon and brain cytosolic fractions compared to the DSS group.

Graphical Abstract

Water Extraction of Plant (Momordica Charantia) Reduced Oxidative and Colonic Mucosal Inflammation in Colotic Male Balb/c Mice


Main Subjects


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