Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Agronomy, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran

2 Department of Agronomy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of Nitrogen fixing bacteria and manure application on the seed yield and yield components in black cumin (Nigella sativa L.). The experiment was carried out at the RAN Research Station in Firouzkouh in 2012. A 4×4 factorial experiment, arranged in a randomized complete blocks designed with three replications. The treatments consisted of 4 level of nitrogen fixing bacteria (control, Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Azotobacter + Azospirillum) and 4 level of manure (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 ton ha-1). The present results have shown that the highest height, 1000 seeds weight, seed number per follicle, follicle yield, seed yield and harvest index were obtained after using Azotobacter and Azospirillum, simultaneously. Manure application only affects on follicle yield and by 5ton manure ha-1 the highest follicle yield obtained. Results of this investigation showed that the maximum seed yield obtained when Aotobacter+Azospirillum inoculated with black cumin seeds and 5 ton manure ha-1 applied. Combined application of nitrogen fixing bacteria and manure can be helpful in developing of production and yield in Cicer arietinum


Abdou MAH, El Sayed AA, Badran FS, El Deen RMS (2004). Effect of planting density and chemical and biofertilization on vegetative growth, yield and chemical composition of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller): I - Effect of planting density and some chemical (Nofatrein) and biochemical (Biogen) fertilizers. Ann. Agric. Sci. Moshtohor. 42(4): 1907-1922.
Azizi M, Rezvani F, Hassan ZKM, Lekzian A, Nemati A (2009). Effects of vermicompost and irrigation on morphological traits and essential oil of chamomile. Iran. J. Med. Plants. Spices Res. 24(1):82-93.
Khalid KA, Shafei AM (2005) Productivity of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) as influenced by different organic manure rates and sources.  Arab Univ. J. Agric. Sci.13 (3): 901-913.
Badary OA, Al-Shabanah OA, Nagi MN, Al-Rikabi AC, Elmazar MM (1999).Inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach carcinogenesis in mice by thymoquinone. Eur. J. Cancer. Prev. 8: 435-40.
Barton IL, Johnson GV, Orbock MS (1986). The effect of Azospirillum brasilense on iron absorption and translocation by sorghum. J. Plant nut. 9: 557-565.
Bendahou M, Muselli A, Grignon-Dubois M, Benyoucef M, Desjobert JM, Bernardini AF, Costa J (2008). Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Origanum glandulosum Desf. Essential oil and extract obtained by microwave extraction: comparison with hydrodistillation. Food Chem. 106: 132-139.
Bhaskara RKV, Charyulu PBBN (2005). Evaluation of effect of inoculation of Azospirillum on the yield of Setaria italica (L.). Afr. JBiotechnol. 4(9):989-995
Caballero-Mellado J, Carcano MMG, Mascarua EMA (1992). Field inoculation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) with Azospirillum brasilense under temperate climate. Symbiosis. 13:243-253.
Das K, Dang R, Shivananda TN, Sekeroglu N (2007). Influence obiofertilizers on the biomass yield and nutrient content in Stevia rebaudiana Bert. grown in Indian subtropics. J. Med. Plants Res.1 (1):5-8.
Darzi MT, Haj Seyed Hadi MR, Rejali F (2011). Effect of vermicompost and phosphate biofertilizer application on yield and yield components in Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.). Iranian J. Med. Aroma. Plants. 4(50):452-465.
Fulchieri M,  Frioni  L  (1994).  Azospirillum inoculation on maize (Zea mays): effect on yield in a field experiment in central Argentina. Soil. Biol. Chem. 26:921-923.
Gyaneshwar P, Naresh Kumar G, Parekh LJ, Poole PS (2002). Role of soil microorganisms in improving P nutrition of plants. Plant. Soil. 245: 83-93.
Haj Seyed Hadi MR, Darzi MT, Riazi GH, Ghandehari Z (2011). Effects of vermicompost and amino acids on the flower yield and essential oil production from Matricaria chamomile L. J. Med. Plants Res. 5(23):5611-5617.
Haj Seyed Hadi MR , Darzi MT, Ghandehari Z ( 2012). Effects of irrigation treatment and Azospirillum inoculation on yield and yield component of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.). J. Med. Plants Res. 6(30): 4553-4561
Ivankovic S, Stojkovic R, Jukic M, Milos M, Jurin M (2006). The antitumor activity of thymoquinone and thymohydroquinone in vitro and in vivo. Exp. Oncol. 28 (3): 220-224.
Khalid KHA (2006). Influence of water stress on growth essential oil, and chemical composition of herbs (Ocimum sp.). Int. Agrophys. 20:289-296.
Kolb W, Martin P (1985). Response of plant roots to inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense and to application of indole acetic acid. In Azospirillum. III. Genetics, physiology, ecology. Edited by W. Klingmüller. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 215-221.
Millet E, Feldman M (1986). Yield response of a common spring wheat cultivar to inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense at various levels ofnitrogen fertilization. Plant Soil, 80:255-259.
Murty MG, Ladha JK (1987). Differential colonization of Azospirillum lipoferum on roots of two varieties of rice (oryza satival.). Biol. Fertil. Soils. 4: 3-7.
Okon Y (1985). Azospirillum as a potential inoculant for agriculture. Trends Biotechnol. 3:223-228.
Nadjafi F, Rezvani P (2002). Effects of irrigation regimes and plant densities on yield and agronomic characteristics of Isabgol (Plantago ovata). Agric. Sci. Technol. 2:59-65.
Najm AA, Haj Seyed Hadi MR, Darzi MT, Rahi AR, Fazeli F (2012). Effects of integrated management of nitrogen fertilizer and cattle manure on the leaf cholorophyll, yield and tuber glycoalkaloids of Agria potato. Commun. Soil. Sci. Plant Anal.43: 912-923.
Patel BS, Patel JC, Sadaria SG (1996). Response of blond psyllium (Plantago ovata) to irrigation and phosphorus. Indian J. Agron. 41: 311314.
Pereyra MA, Garcia P, Colabelli MN, Barassi CA, Creus CM (2012). A better water status in wheat seedlings induced by Azospirillum under osmotic stress is related to morphological changes in xylem vessels of the coleoptile. Appl. Soil Ecol. 53:94-97.
Sarig S, Blum A, Okon Y (1988). Improvement of the water status andyield of field-grown grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) by inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense. J. Agric. Sci. 110:271-277.
Verma NK (2011). Integrated nutrient management in winter maize (Zea mays L.) sown at different dates. Afr. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 3(8):161-167.
Warembourg FR, Dreessen R, Vlassak K, Lafont F (1987). Peculiar effect of Azospirillum inoculation on growth and nitrogen balance of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). Biol. Fertil. Soils 4:55-59.
Zar JH (1996). Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
SAS Inc (2001). SAS Procedure guide. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.