Document Type : Review Article


Lecturer of Payam Noor University, Qom, Iran


There are a number of requirements by which animals should be managed so that the best performance is achieved in a way acceptable to those responsible for the care of the animals and to the community generally. These requirements are the keys to good management and may be used to test the management of a poultry enterprise in relation to the standard of its management. These requirements are also called Principles. The importance of each Principle changes with the situation and thus the emphasis placed on each may alter from place to place and from time to time. This means that, while the Principles do not change the degree of emphasis and method of application may change. Every facet of the poultry operation should be tested against the relevant principles.


 Appleby, M.C.; J.A. Mench and B.O. Hughes (2004). Poultry Behaviour and Welfare. Wallingford and Cambridge MA: CABI Publishing.
 Breward, J., (1984). Cutaneous nociceptors in the chicken beak. Proceedings of the Journal of Physiology, London 346: 56
 Breward, L. and Gentle, M.J., (1985). Neuroma formation and abnormal afferent nerve discharges after partial break amputation (beak trimming) in poultry. Experientia, 41: 1132-1134.
 Devor, M. and Rappaport, Z.H., (1990). Pain Syndromes in Neurology, edited by H.L. Fields, Butterworths, London, p. 47.
 Duncan I.J.H., Slee G.S., Seawright E. and Breward J., (1989). Behavioural consequences of partial beak amputation (beak trimming) in poultry. British Poultry Science, 30: 479– 488
 Foer, Jonathan Safran (2009). "Eating Animals", Page 136. Little, Brown and Company, USA. ISBN 978-0-316-06990-8.
 Havenstein GB, Ferket PR, Scheideler SE, Rives DV (December 1994). "Carcass composition and yield of 1991 vs 1957 broilers when fed "typical" 1957 and 1991 broiler diets". Poult. Sci. 73 (12): 1795–804.
 Gentle M.J., Hughes B.O. and Hubrecht R.C., (1982). The effect of beak-trimming on food-intake, feeding behaviour and body weight in adult hens. Applied Animal Ethology, 8: 147–157
 Kuenzel, W.J. (2001). Neurobiological basis of sensory perception: welfare implications of beak trimming. Poultry Science, 86: 1273-1282
 Lunam, C.A., Glatz, P.C. and Hsu, Y-J., (1996). The absence of neuromas in beaks of adult hens after conservative trimming at hatch. Australian Veterinary Journal, 74: 46-49
 Sherwin, C.M., Richards, G.J and Nicol, C.J. 2010. A comparison of the welfare of layer hens in four housing systems in the UK. British Poultry Science, 51(4): 488-499.