Document Type : Original Article
1 Graduate student, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
2 Department of Avian Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
3 Center of Comparative&experimental medicine, Basic sciences in infection diseases research center, School of medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
4 School of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Infectious agents cause disease in virtually any susceptible hosts. In the poultry production and medicine, pathogens were eliminated from a line of a breeder by injection of antibiotics into hatching eggs. There is little information available describing the safety of the folate antimetabolite/sulfonamide class of antibiotics on the game birds embryonated eggs. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of the injection oftrimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole solution on the partridge embryonated egg. Fertile partridge eggs were distributed into 3 groups and set in the incubator. On 18th day post incubation, one group was injected with the trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole injectable solution dissolved in 0.3 ml phosphate buffered saline. Rest two groups were used as sham control (0.3 ml phosphate buffered saline solution) and un-injected control. Macroscopic evaluationon 21th day post incubation showed that embryos were normal in all treatment groups. Microscopically, no lesions were also diagnosed in the brain, heart, muscle, liver, kidney and lung of the embryos. Based on macroscopic and microscopic findings, it is concluded that trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole at above-mentioned concentration is not toxic for the partridge embryo at the late stage of development. So, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole egg-injection can be used toeliminate pathogens and prevention of egg transmission of the diseasewithout any adverse effect.
Ahrens FA, Martin RJ (2013). Antimicrobial drugs. Handbook of Veterinary Pharmacology 347.
Altunsoy A, Aypak C, Azap A, Ergönül Ö, Balık İ (2011). The impact of a nationwide antibiotic restriction program on antibiotic usage and resistance against nosocomial pathogens in Turkey. Int. J. Med. Sci. 8(4): 339.
Banerjee S, Mukhopadhayay SK, Ganguly S (2013). Phytogenic Growth Promoter as Replacers for Antibiotic Growth Promoter in Poultry Birds. J Anim Genet Res 1(1): 6-7.
Buscaglia C (2013). Influence of the addition of antibiotics on survival of herpevirus of turkeys. Avian Dis. 52(2): 437-436.
Colomer-Lluch M, Imamovic L, Jofre J, Muniesa M (2011). Bacteriophages carrying antibiotic resistance genes in fecal waste from cattle, pigs, and poultry. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 55(10): 4908-4911.
Crespo R, Shivaprasad H, Silva Franca M (2013). Ulcerative Enteritis-like Disease Associated with Clostridium sordellii in Quail. Avian Dis. 57(3): 213-221.
Dubb A (2012). Antibiotic Update. South African Family Practice 4(5): 123-134.
Erdem H, Akova M (2012). Leading infectious diseases problems in Turkey. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 18(11): 1056-1067.
Garner DL, Evans KM, Seidel GE (2013). Sex-Sorting Sperm Using Flow Cytometry/Cell Sorting. Spermatogenesis, Springer: 279-295.
Gharaibeh S, Al-Rashdan M (2011). Change in antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum field isolates. Vet. Microbiol. 150(3): 379-383.
Ghazikhanian GY, Yamamoto R, McCapes R, Dungan WM, Larsen C, Ortmayer H (1980). Antibiotic Egg Injection to Eliminate Disease II. Elimination of Mycoplasma meleagridis from a Strain of Turkeys. Avian Dis. 48-56.
Hamburger V (1942). A manual of experimental embryology, University of Chicago Press Chicago.
Hasan B, Faruque R, Drobni M, Waldenström J, Sadique A, Ahmed KU, Islam Z, Parvez MH, Olsen B, Alam M (2011). High prevalence of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic Escherichia coli from large-and small-scale poultry farms in Bangladesh. Avian Dis. 55(4): 689-692.
Jacobsen ID, Große K, Hube B (2012). Embryonated Chicken Eggs as Alternative Infection Model for Pathogenic Fungi. Host-Fungus Interactions, Springer: 487-496.
Jones K, Thornton J, Zhang Y, Mauel M (2013). A 5-year retrospective report of Gallibacterium anatis and Pasteurella multocida isolates from chickens in Mississippi. Poult. Sci. 92(12): 3166-3171.
Kabir S (2010). Avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis: a closer look at epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, control and public health concerns. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public. Health 7(1): 89-114.
Kleven S (2008). Control of avian mycoplasma infections in commercial poultry. Avian Dis. 52(3): 367-374.
Lee K-W, Ho Hong Y, Lee S-H, Jang SI, Park M-S, Bautista DA, Donald Ritter G, Jeong W, Jeoung HY, An D-J (2012). Effects of anticoccidial and antibiotic growth promoter programs on broiler performance and immune status. Res. Vet. Sci. 93(2): 721-728.
Lee S-K, Chon J-W, Song K-Y, Hyeon J-Y, Moon J-S, Seo K-H (2013). Prevalence, characterization, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella Gallinarum isolated from eggs produced in conventional or organic farms in South Korea. Poult. Sci. 92(10): 2789-2797.
MacDonald JM, Wang S-L (2011). Foregoing sub-therapeutic antibiotics: The impact on broiler grow-out operations. App. Economic Perspectives and Policy 33(1): 79-98.
McCapes R, Yamamoto R, Ghazikhanian G, Dungan W, Ortmayer H (1977). Antibiotic Egg Injection to Eliminate Disease I. Effect of Injection Methods on Turkey Hatchability and Mycoplasma meleagridis Infection. Avian Dis. 57-68.
McDougald L, Abraham M, Beckstead R (2012). An Outbreak of Blackhead Disease (Histomonas meleagridis) in Farm-Reared Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus). Avian Dis. 56(4): 754-756.
McKellar Q, Sanchez Bruni S, Jones D (2004). Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships of antimicrobial drugs used in veterinary medicine. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 27(6): 503-514.
Nascimento ER, Pereira V, Nascimento M, Barreto M (2005). Avian mycoplasmosis update. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola 7(1): 1-9.
Nemati M (2013). Antimicrobial resistance of porteus isolates from poultry. Euro. J. Exp. Bio. 3(6): 499-500.
Obeng AS, Rickard H, Ndi O, Sexton M, Barton M (2012). Antibiotic resistance, phylogenetic grouping and virulence potential of Escherichia coli isolated from the faeces of intensively farmed and free range poultry. Vet. Microbiol. 154(3): 305-315.
Priyantha M, Vipulasiri A, Gunawardana G (2012). Salmonella control in poultry breeder farms in Sri Lanka: Effects of oral antibiotic treatment on whole blood agglutination test with Salmonella pullorum antigen. Int. J. Livestock Produc. 3(2): 21-24.
Rigobelo EC, Blackall PJ, Maluta RP, Ávila FAd (2013). Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Pasteurella multocida isolated from chickens and japanese quails in Brazil. Braz. J. Microbiol. 44(1): 161-164.
Sapkota AR, Hulet RM, Zhang G, McDermott P, Kinney EL, Schwab KJ, Joseph SW (2011). Lower prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enterococci on US conventional poultry farms that transitioned to organic practices. Environ. Health Perspect. 119(11): 1622.
Sheeks OB, Sheeks RL (1992). Egg injection method, apparatus and carrier solution for improving hatchability and disease control, Google Patents.
Singroha R, Srivastava S, Chhikara P (2012). Effect of Gentamicin on kidney in developing chicks. Eur J Anat 16(2): 119-126.
Singroha R, Srivastava S, Chhikara P (2013). Effect of gentamicin on proximal convoluted tubules of kidney in developing chicks. J. Anat. Soc. India 62(1): 17-22.
Sweetman SC, Pharm B, PharmS F, Eds. (2009). Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. London, Pharmaceutical Press.
Tavakkoli H, Derakhshanfar A, Noori Gooshki S (2013). A short preliminary experimental study on teratogenic effect of methenamine in embryonic model. In. J. Adv. Biol. Biom. Res. 1(12): 1523-1528.
Tavakkoli H, Derakhshanfar A, Noori Gooshki S (2014). The effect of florfenicol egg-injection on embryonated chicken egg. In. J. Adv. Biol. Biom. Res. 2(2): 496-503.
Tavakkoli H, Derakhshanfar A, Noori Gooshki S (2014). Toxicopathological lesions of fosfomycin in embryonic model. Euro. J. Exp. Bio.4(2): 63-71.
Tavakkoli H, Derakhshanfar A, S S (2014). Toxicology of urotropine in chicken embryo model. Online J Vet Res 18(2): 109-115.
Tavakkoli H, Derakhshanfar A, Salandari S (2104). Investigation on the using of linco-spectin solution for in ovo administration in chicken embryo. In. J. Adv. Biol. Biom. Res. 2(1): 110-116.