Document Type : Original Article


Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran


The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of biofertilizers on quantity and quality of essential oil of basil essential oil content, geranial, caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide and methyl chavicol in essential oil. The experiment was carried out as randomized complete blocks design with eight treatments and three replications at research field of Agriculture Company of Ran in Firouzkuh of iran in 2012 . The treatments were [1] Azotobacter chroococcum (A), [2] Azospirillum lipoferum (B), [3] Bacillus circulans (C), [4] A + B, [5] A + C, [6] B + C, [7] A + B + C and [8] control (without fertilizer application). The present results have shown that the highest essential oil content and the minimum caryophyllene oxide in essential oil were obtained after applying each three bioertilizers (A + B + C). The maximum geranial in essential oil and the minimum caryophyllene in essential oil were obtained by using two biofertilizers (A + C). Also, the highest methyl chavicol in essential oil was obtained after applying two biofertilizers (B + C).


Abdou MAH, El Sayed AA, Badran FS, El Deen RMS (2004). Effect of planting density and chemical and biofertilization on vegetative growth, yield and chemical composition of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller): I - Effect of planting density and some chemical (Nofatrein) and biochemical (Biogen) fertilizers.
Ann. Agric. Sci. Moshtohor., 42(4): 1907-1922.
Azzaz NA, Hassan EA, Hamad EH (2009). The chemical constituent and vegetative and yielding characteristics of fennel plants treated with organic and bio-fertilizer instead of mineral fertilizer.
Australian J. Basic and Applied Sci. 3(2): 579-587.
Chen YP, Rekha PD, Arun AB, Shen FT (2006). Phosphate solubilizing bacteria from subtropical soil and their tricalcium phosphate solubilizing abilities. Appl. Soil. Ecol., 34: 33-41.
Darzi MT, Ghalavand A, Sephidkon F, Rejali F (2009). Effects of Mycorrhiza, Vermicompost and Phosphatic Biofertilizer Application on Quantity and Quality of Essential Oil in Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Iran. J. Med. Aroma. Plants., 24(4): 396-413.
Darzi MT, Haj Seyed Hadi MR, Rejali F (2012). Effects of the application of vermicompost and nitrogen fixing bacteria on quantity and quality of the essential oil in dill (Anethum graveolens). J. Medicinal Plants Res., 6(21): 3793-3799.
Darzi MT, Hadj Seyed Hadi MR, Rejali F. 2013. Effects of Vermicompost and Phosphatic Biofertilizer Application on Quantity and Quality of Essential Oil in Anise.
Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 29(3): 583-594.
El Ghadban EAE, Shalan MN, Abdel Latif TAT. 2006. Influence of biofertilizers on growth, volatile oil yieldand constituents of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Egyptian J. Agric. Res., 84(3): 977-992.
- Fallahi J, Koocheki A, Rezvani Moghaddam P (2010). Effects of biofertilizers on quantitative and qualitative yield of chamomile (Matricaria recutita) as a medicinal plant. Iranian Journal of Agronomy Researches, 7(1): 127-135.
Harshavardhan PG, Vasundhara M, Shetty GR, Nataraja A, Sreeramu BS, Gowda MC, Sreenivasappa KN (2007). Influence of spacing and integrated nutrient management on yield and quality of essential oil in lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L). Biomed., 2(3): 288-292.
Khalid KHA, Hendawy SF, El-Gezawy E (2006). Ocimum basilicum L. Production under Organic Farming. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciecnes. 2(1): 25-32.
Koocheki A, Tabrizi L, Ghorbani R (2009). Effect of biofertilizers on agronomic and quality criteria of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis). Iranian J. Agron. Res., 6(1): 127-137.
Kumar TS, Swaminathan V, Kumar S (2009). Influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and biofertilizers on growth, yield and essential oil constituents in ratoon crop of davana (Artemisia pallens Wall.). Electronic J. Environ. Agric. Food Chemistry., 8(2): 86-95.
Mahfouz SA, Sharaf Eldin MA (2007). Effect of mineral vs. biofertilizer on growth, yield, and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill). International Agrophisics., 21(4): 361-366.
Mirshekari B, Asadi Rahmani H, Mirmozafari Rodsari A (2010). The effect of seed inoculation with Azospirillum strains and coating with microelements on seed yield and essence of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 25(4): 470-481.
Mondello L, Zappia G, Cotroneo A, Bonaccorsi I, Chowdhury JU, Yusuf M, Dugo G. (2002) Studies on the essential oil-bearing plants of Bangladesh. Part VIII. Composition of some Ocimum oils O. basilicum L. var. purpurascens; O. sanctum L. green; O.sanctum L. purple; O. americanum L., citral type; O.
americanum L., camphor type. Flavour Fragr J 17:335ñ340.
Moradi R, Nasiri Mahallati M, Rezvani Moghaddam P, Lakzian A, Nejad Ali, A (2011). The effect of application of organic and biological fertilizers on quantity and quality of essential oil in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). J. Hortic. Sci., 25(1): 25-33.
Rashmi KR, Earanna N, Vasundhara M (2008). Influence of biofertilizers on growth, biomass and biochemical constituents of Ocimum gratissimum. L. Biomed., 3(2): 123-130.
Ratti N, Kumar S, Verma HN, Gautam SP (2001). Improvement in bioavailability of tricalcium phosphate to Cymbopogon martinii var. motia by rhizobacteria, AMF and Azospirillum inoculation. Microbiol. Res., 156: 145-149.
Sajjadi SE (2006). Analysis of the essential oils of two cultivated basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) from Iran. Daru. 14(3): 128-130.
SAS Ins (2001). SAS Institute, 2001. SAS Procedures Guide, Version 8. SAS Institute, Cary NC, USA.
Sephidkon F (2002). Evaluation of Quantitative and Qualitative of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) essential oil in different growth stages. Iran. J. Med. Aroma. Plants., 7: 85-104.
Shaalan MN (2005a). Effect of compost and different sources of biofertilizers, on borage plants (Borago officinalis, L.). Egyptian J. Agric. Res., 83(1): 271-284.
Shaalan MN (2005b). Influence of biofertilizers and chicken manure on growth, yield and seeds quality of Nigella sativa, L. plants. Egyptian J. Agric. Res., 83(2): 811-828.
Sharma AK (2002). Biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture. Agrobios, India, 407 p.
Velmurugan M, Chezhiyan N, Jawaharlal M (2008). Influence of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on cured rhizome yield and quality of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) cv. BSR-2. International J. Agric. Sci., 4(1): 142-145.
Zar JH (1996). Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.