Document Type : Review Article
1 M.sc Graduated of Philosophy Education, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran
2 M.sc Graduated of Psychology Exceptional Children, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of training on personality formation and mental development of childhood and adolescence. It is important to understand how children develop physically, socially, emotionally and intellectually to know that all areas of development are equally as important as each other, and that all impact on one another. Biological and cognitive changes transform children’s bodies and minds. Social relationships and roles change dramatically as children enter school, join programs, and become involved with peers and adults outside their families. The years between 6 and 14 middle childhood and early adolescence are a time of important developmental advances that establish children’s sense of identity. A child’s development can be measured through social, emotional, intellectual, physical and language developmental milestones. All children and young people follow a similar pattern of development so the order in which each child advances from one milestone to the next will be roughly the same. However, each child will develop at a different rate and their development may not progress evenly across all areas
psychopathology upon neuroendocrine functioning. Development and Psychopathology, 13: 783-804.
Eccles, J.S., Midgley, C., Wigfield, A., et al. (1993). Development during adolescence: The impact of stage-environment fit on adolescents’ experiences in schools and families. American Psychologist, 48:90–101.
Goldhaber, Dan. (2002). The mystery of good teaching. Education Next 2, (1): 50-55.
Hallinan, M. T. (2008). Teacher influences on children’s attachment to school. Sociology of
Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P., (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to children’s engagement and achievement. Journal of School Health, 74(7), 262-273.
Johnson, R., Rew, L., and Sternglanz, R. W. (2006). The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and sexual health practices of homeless adolescents. Adolescence, 41(162):221-234.
Petersen, A. (1988). Adolescent development. Annual Review of Psychology, 39:583-607.
Pianta, R. C., & Stuhlman, M. W., (2004). Teacher-child relationships and children's success in the first years of school. School Psychology Review, 33(3):817-824.
Rivkin, Steven G., Eric A. Hanushek, and John F. Kain. (2005). Teachers, schools, and academic achievement. Econometrica 73, (2): 417-58.
Reid, J. B. & Patterson, G. R. (1989). The development of antisocial behavior patterns in childhood and adolescence, European Journal of Personality, 3, 107-119.
Shaw, D. S., Gilliom, M., & Giovanelli, J.(2000). Aggressive behaviour disorders. In C. H. Zeanah (Ed.). Handbook of infant mental health (2 nd ed., pp397-411). New York: Guilford Press.
Shaw, D. S. & Bell, R. Q., (1993). Developmental theories of parental contributors to antisocial behavior. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 21, 493-518.
Simmons, R.G., and Blyth, D.A. Moving into adolescence: The impact of pubertal change and school context. Hawthorn, NY: Aldine de Gruyter, 1987.
Springer, K.W., Sheridan, J., Kuo, D., and Carnes, M. (2007). Long-term physical and mental health consequences of childhood physical abuse: Results from a large population-based sample of men and women. Child Abuse and Neglect, 31: 517-530.
Walrath, C.M., Ybarra, M.L., Sheehan, A.K., Holden, E.W., Burns, B.J. (2003). Impact of maltreatment on children served in community mental health programs, Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: 14: 73-81.
Wigfield, A., Eccles, J.S., Yoon, K.S., et al. (1997). Changes in children’s competence beliefs and subjective task values across the elementary school years: A three-year study. Journal of Educational Psychology 89, 3:451-69.