Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran


The genus Haplophyllum, which belongs to the Rutaceae family, includes 18 species in Iran. In this study, after collecting plant material, botanical identification and suitable drying, the essential oils from aerial parts of Haplophyllum robustum Bge. were extracted by three different isolation techniques, conventional hydrodistillation (HD), microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and solvent free microwave extraction (SFME)  and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The main components of three essential oils were sabinene (28.9%-31.5%), β- phellandrene (11.0%-14.6%), 1,8- cineole (7.2%-11.0%), 3,5- dimethoxy toluene (5.1%-14.2%), β- pinene (7.3%-8.9%) and terpinene-4-ol (5.8%-6.2%). Higher amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes such as 1,8-cineole, Camphor and terpinene-4-ol were present in the oil of MAHD and SFME (21.1% and 21.0%, respectively) in comparison with HD (19.0%). However, HD oil contained more monoterpene hydrocarbons such as sabinene, β- phellandrene, β- pinene (72.6 %) than SFME and MAHD extracted oils (67.9% and 62.8%, respectively). MAHD and SFME offered substantial advantages over conventional HD. A similar extraction yield was achieved at significantly shorter extraction time when using MAHD and SFME instead of HD. Also microwave irradiation significantly reduced the extraction time  and did not adversely influence the composition of the essential oil. MAHD and SFME is also more environment-friendly than HD. Compared with many solvent extraction techniques, such as Soxhlet, solvent extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction, MAHD and SFME is a modern, green, and rapid approach


Main Subjects

Abert-Vian, M., Fernandez, X., Visinoni, F., & Chemat F. (2008). Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity, a new technique for extraction of essential oils. Journal of Chromatography A, 1190, 14-17.
Adams, R. P. (1995). Identification of Essential Oil Components By Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectroscopy, Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream ash samples. Journal of Chromatography A, 985, 137-145.
Antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Brazilian species of the genus Cunila against foodborne pathogens and spoiling bacteria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 103, 823-828.
Bendahou, M., Muselli, A., Grignon-Dubois, M., Benyoucef, M., Desjobert, J. M., Bernardini, A. F., & Costa J. (2008). Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Origanum glandulosum Desf.essential oil and extract obtained by microwave extraction:Comparison with hydrodistillation. Food
Chemistry, 106, 132 –139.
Boelens, M. H. (1985). Perfumer and Flavorist, 9, 1.
Bousbia, N., Vian, M. A., Ferhat, M. A., Petitcolas, E., Meklati, B.Y., & Chemat F. (2009). Composition of two isolation methods for essential oil from Rosmary leaves: hydrodistillation and microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity, Food Chemistry, 114, 355-362.
Brachet, A., Christen, P., & Veuthey J. L. (2002). Focused microwave assisted extraction of cocaein and benzoylecgonine from coca leaves. Phytochemical Analysis, 13, 162-169.
Chemat, F., & Lucchesi, M. (2006). Microwaves in Organic Synthesis, in: A. Loupy (Ed.), Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.
Chemat, F., Lucchesi, M. E., Smadja, J., Faveretto, L., Colnaghi, G., & Visinoni F. (2006). Microwave
accelerated steam distillation of essential oil from lavender: A rapid, clean and environmentally friendly
approach. Analytica Chimica Acta, 555, 157-160.
Clevenger, J. F., (1928). Am. Perfumer Essential Oil Rev, 467.
Craveiro, A., Matos, F., Alencar, J., & Plumel M. (1989). Microwave oven extraction of an essential oil. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 4, 43-44.
Deba, F., Xuan, T. D., Yasuda, M., & Tawatu S. (2008). Chemical composition and antioxidant,antibacterial and antifungal activities of the essential oils from Bidens pilosa Linn.Var. Radiata. Food Control, 19, 346-352.
fadeh, O., Ghazi, Z., Mouini, L., Benchat, N., Ramdani, M., Amhamdi, H., Wathelet, J. P. Asehraou, A., & Charof R. (2011). Comparison of Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation and Ganzler, K., Salgo, A., & Valko K. (1986). Microwave extraction: A novel sample preparation method for chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 371, 299-306.
Golmakani, M. T., & Rezaei K. (2008). Comparison of microwave-assisted hydrodistillation with the traditional hydrodistillation method in the extraction of essential oils from Thymus vulgaris L. Food Chemistry, 109(4), 925-930.
Heath, H. B. (1978). In flavor technology, Westport, Connecticut: AVI Publishing company, Inc. Inigo, A., Pala Paul, J., Perez Alonso, M. J. & Velasco Negueruela A. (2002). Composición química del aceite esencial de "Haplophyllum linifolium" (L.) G. Don fil. Batanica Complutensis, 26, 79-84.
Iriti, M., Colnaghi, G., Chemat, F., Smadja, J., Faoro, F. & Visinoni F. A. (2006). Histo-cytochemistry and scanning electron microscopy of lavender glandular trichomes following conventional and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation of essential oils: a comparative study. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 21, 704-712.
Javidnia, K., Miri, R., & Soltani M. Varamini, P., (2009). Volatile Constituents of Two Species of Haplophyllum A. Juss. from Iran [H. lissonotum C. Town. and H. buxbaumii (Poir.) G.Don. subsp. mesopotamicum (Boiss.) C.Town.], Journal of Essential Oil Research, 21, 48-51.
Jiménez-Carmona, M. M., Ubera, J. L., & Luque de Castro M.D. (1999). Journal of Chromatography A, 855, 625.
Käufmann, B., Christen, P., & Veuthey J. L. (2001). Parameters affecting microwave-assisted extraction of with anolids. Phytochemical Analysis, 12, 327-331.
Khajeh, M., Yamini, Y., Sefidkon, F., & Bahramifar N. (2004). Comparison of essential oil composition of Carum copticum Obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and hydrodistillation methods. Food hemistry, 86, 587-591.
Lettelier, M., & Budzinski H. (1999). Microwave assisted extraction of organic compounds. Analusis, 27, 259-271.
Lis-Balchin, M., & Deans S.G. (1997). Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 82, 759.
Lucchesi, M. E., Chemat, F., & Smadja J. (2004a). Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: Comparison with conventional hydrodistillation. Journal of Chromatography A, 1043, 323-327.
Lucchesi, M. E., Smadja, J., Bradshaw, S., Louw, W., & Chemat, F. (2007). Solvent free microextraction of Elletaria cardamomum L: A multivariate study of a new technique for the extraction of essential oil. Journal of Food Engineering,79 ,1079 –1086.
Masoudi, S., Rustaiyan, A., & Azar P. A. J. (2004). Essential Oil o Haplophyllum robustum Bge. from Iran. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 16, 548-549.
Mozaffarian, V. (1996). A Dictionary of Iranian Plants Name, Tehran: Farhang Moaser.
Okoh, O.O., Sadimenko, A. P., & Afolayan A. (2010). Comparative evaluation of the antibacterial activities of the essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis L. obtained by hydrodistillation and solvent free microwave extraction methods. Food Chemistry, 120, 308-312.
Onifade, A. K., Fatope, M. O., Deadman, M. L., & Al-Kindy, S. M. Z. (2008). Nematicidal activity of Haplophyllum tuberculatum and Plectranthus cylindraceus oils against Meloidogyne javanica. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 36, 679-683.
Phutdhawong, W., Kawaree, R., Sanjaiya, S., Sengpracha, W., & Buddhasukh D. (2007). MicrowaveAssisted Isolation of Essential oil of Cinnamomum iners Reinw. ex Bl.: Comparison with Conventional HydrodistillationMolecules, 12(4), 868-877.
Presti, M. L., Ragusa, S., Trozzi, A., Dugo, P., Visinoni, F., & Fazio A. (2005). A comparison between different techniques for the isolation of rosemary essential oil. Journal of Separation Science, 28, 273-280.
Rahimi-Nasrabadi, M., Gholivand, M. B. & Batooli H. (2009). Chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves and flowering aerial parts of Haplophylium robustum Bge. Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, 4, 819-822.
Reynolds, J. E. F. Martindale – the extra pharmacopoeia. Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, London, 31st ed., 1996.
Rezvanpanah, S., Rezaei, R., Razavi, S. H., & Moini S. (2008). Use of Microwave-assisted
Hydrodistillation to Extract the Essential Oils from Satureja hortensis and Satureja montana, Food Science and Technology Research, 14(3), 311 –314.
Riela, S., Bruno, M., Formisano, C., Rigano, D., Rosselli, S., Saladino, M. L., & Senatore F. (2008).
Effects of solvent-free microwave extraction on the chemical composition of essential oil of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi compared with the conventional production method Journal of Separation Science, 31,1110-1117.
Saglam, H., Gozler, T., & Kivcak B. (2001). COMPOSITION OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Haplophyllum myrtifolium. Chemistry of natural compounds, 37, 439-441.
Sahraoui, N., Abert-Vian, M., Bornard, I., Boutekdjiret, C., & Chemat F. (2008). Improved Microwave Steam Distillation Apparatus for isolation of Essential Oils. Comparison with conventional SteamDistillation. Journal of Chromatography A, 1210, 229-233.
Sokmen, A., Vardar-ÃoenlÃ, G., Polissiou, M., Daferera, D., Sokmen, M., & Donmez E. (2003).
Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and methanol extracts of Achillea sintenisii Hub Mor.(Asteraceae). Phytotherapy Research, 17, 1005-1010.
Tomaniová, M., Hajšlová, J., Pavelka, Jr J., Kocourek, V., Holadová, K., & Klimová, I. (1998).
Microwave-assisted solvent extraction- a new method for isplation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from plants. Journal of Chromatography A, 827, 21-29.
Traditional Hydrodistillation Methods for the Rosmarinus eriocalyx essential oils from Eastern Morocco. J. Mater. Environ. Sci., 2, 112-117.
Tuan, D.Q., & Ilangantileke S.G. (1997). Liquid CO2 extraction of essential oil from star anise fruits (Illicium verum H.). Journal of Food Engineering, 31, 47–57.
Wang, Y., Jiang, Z., Li, R., & Guan W. Q. (2009). Composition comparison of essential oils extractrd by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and hydrodistillation from Kaempferia galangal L. grown in China.
Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 12(4), 415-421.
Wang, Z., Ding, L., Li, T., Zhou, X., Wang, L., Zhang, H., Liu, L., Li, Y., Liu, Z., Wang, H., Zeng, H., & He H. (2006). Improved solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from dried Cuminum cyminum
L. and Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. Journal of Chromatography A , 1102 , 11 –17.