Document Type : Original Article


Dept. of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Wasit, Wasit, Iraq


Due to the fact that many application processes take place at different temperature, better examining and understanding of swelling properties as a function of temperature is essential for such application. The temperature effect on the swelling properties of commercial polyacrylic acid (PAA) hydrogel beads was investigated as a function of time and temperature. Gel bead size, swelling equilibrium capacity, diameter, weight, water retention, swelling ratio, welling degree and fractional hydration were studied to investigate the swelling properties of hydrogel bead at a given temperature. Diffusion type and its related parameters were studied and calculated. The kinetic model was applied on experimental data using second order model, the kinetic parameters were calculated. The maximum swelling ratio was calculated as 233.7 at 40 ˚C. In experiment of the swelling non- Fickian diffusion was found


[1] Omidian, H., Rocca, J. G. and Park, K. 2005, Advanced in superporous hydrogels, J. Controlled Release, pp.102, 3-12.
[2] Fernandez, E. Lopez, D., Lopez-Cabracos, E. and Mijangos, C. 2005, Viscoelastic and swelling properties of glucose oxidase loaded polyacryliamide hydrogel and the evaluation of their properties as glucose sensors,
Polymer, 46, pp. 2211- 2217.
[3] Gupta, P., Vermani, K. and Garg, S., 2002, Hydrogels from controlled release to pH-responsive drug delivery. Drug Discovery Today.7 (10), pp. 569-579.
[4] Evmenenko, G., Alxev, V., Budtova, T., Buyanov, A. and Frenkel, S. 1999, Swelling- induce changes of poly electrolyte gels. Polymer, 40, pp. 2975-2979.
[5] Peppas, N., 1987.Hydrogels in medicine and pharmacy, vol. 2. Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press.
[6] AmEnde, M. and Peppas, N. 1996, Transport of ionizable drug and proteins in crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) and poly(acrylic acid-co-2-hydroxyetheyl methacrylate) hydrogels,I. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 59(4), pp. 673-685.
[7] Byrne, M., Park, K. and Peppas, N.2002. Molecular imprinting within hydrogels. Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 54, pp. 149-161.
[8] Grini, G. Recent developments in polysaccaried- based materials used as adsorbents I wastewater. Prog. Polym. Sci. 30, pp. 38-70.
[9] Gombotz, R. and Hoffman, A. 1986. Immobilization of Biomolecules and Cells on and within Synthetic Hydrogels. In. Hydrogels in medicine and pharmacy, vol.5. Peppas, N., Ed., Fundamentals CRC Press. Florida.
[10] Peppas, N. and Mikos, A. 1986. Preparation methods and structure of hydrogrls, In. Hydrogels in medicine and pharmacy, vol.1. Peppas, N., Ed., Fundamentals CRC Press. Florida.
[11] Güven, O., Şen, M.,Karadaġ, E. and Saraydin, D.1996. A erview on the radiation synthesis of copolymeric hydrogels for adsorption and separation purposis, Radiat. Phys. Chem. 56, pp. 381-386.
[12] Denizli, A., Say, R., Garipcan, B. and Patir, S. 2004. Methacrylolami-doglutamic acid functionalized poly(2- hydroxy methacrylate) beads for (UO2)2+ removal. Reactive & Functional Polymers 58, pp. 123-130.
[13] Zhung, A., Asakura, T. and Uchiyama, G. 2003. The adsorption mechanism of uranium(VI) from seawater on a macroporous fiber polymeric adsorbent containing amidoxime chelating functional group. Reactive & Functional Polymers 57, pp. 67-76.
[14] Dhodapkar, R., Borde, P. and Nandy, T. 2009. Super absorbent polymer in environmental remediation, Global NEST Journal vol.11(2), pp.223-234.
[15] Buchholz, F. and Graham, A. 1997. Modern superabsorbent polymer technology, Wiley, New York.
[16] Mahdavinia, G., Pourjavadi, A., Hosseinzadeh, H. and Zohuriaan, M. 2004. Modified chitosan superabsorbent hydrogels from poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)grafted chitosan with salt- and pH- responsiveness properties,
European Polymer Journal,40, pp. 1399-1407.
[17] Cussler, E., Stokar, M. and Varberg, J. 1984. Gels as size selective extraction solvents. American Institue of Chemical Engineers, 30, pp. 578-582.
[18] Gehrke, S., Andrews, G. and Cussler, E. 1986. Chemical aspects of gel extraction. Chemical Engineering Science, 41, pp. 2153-2160.
[19] Freitas, R. and Cussler, E. 1987. Temperature sensitive gels as extraction solvents, Chemical Engineering Science, 42, pp.97-103.
[20] Badiger. M., Kulkami, M. and Mashelkar, R. 1992. Concentration of macromolecules from aqueous solution: a new swellex prosess, Chemical Engineering Science, 47, pp.3-9.
[21] Grodzinsky, A. and Grimshaw,P. 1990. Electrically and chemically controlled hydrogel for drug delivery, Pulsed and Self-Regulated Drug Delivery. pp.47-64.
[22] Vasheghani-Farahani, E. Cooper, D, Vera, J. and Weber, M. 1992.Concentration of large biomolecules with hydrogels, Chemical Engineering Science, 47, pp. 31-40.
[23] Davies, L., Novais, J. and Martins-Dias, S. 2004. Influence of salts and phenolic compounds on olive mill wastewater detoxification using superabsorbent polymer, Bioresource technology, 95, pp. 259-268.
[24] Mouayad Q. Al-Abachi, Nagam Shaker Al- Awady and Ahmed. M. Al-Anbakey,PhD. Thesis, Study of The Efficiency of Some Metal Ions Entrapment in Crystalline Water Granules Using Different Spectrophotometric Methods, University of Baghdad, Department of Chemistry, 2013.
[25] Musser, G.L. and Burger, W. F., (1997). In Mathematics for Elementary Teachers, a Contemporary Approach, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 4th ed. pp.507-641.
[26] Erdener, K., Dursur, S. and Yasemin, C. 2006. Swelling characterization of polyelectrolyte poly(Hydroxamic acid) hydrogels in aqueous thiazin dye solution, Polymer-plastic Technology and Engineering 45, pp. 729-734.
[27] AmEnde, M. and Peppas, N.1997. Transport of ionizable drugs and proteins in crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) and poly(acrylic acid-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogels. II. Diffusion and release studies. J. controlled Release 48, pp. 47-56.
[28] Uruzhizaki, F., Yamaguchi, H., Nakamura, K., Numajiri, S., Sugibayashi, K. and Morimoto, Y.1990.Swelling and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels. Int. J. Pharm. 58, 135-142.
[29] Gupta, N. and Shevakumar, H.2010. Preparation and characterization of superporous hydrogels as gastro retentive drug delivery system for rosiglitazone maleate. DARU 18(3), pp. 200-210.
[30] Kose, G., Kenar, H., Hasirci, V. and Hasirci, V. 2003. Macro porous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) matrices for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials, 24, pp. 1949-1958.
[31] Peniche, C., Cohen, M., Vazguez, B. and Roman, J. 1997. Water sorption of flexible networks based on 2-Polymer, 38, pp. 5977-5982.