Document Type : Review Article


1 Lecturer of Payam Noor university, Faculty of Agriculture,Qom, Iran

2 Associate Professor of Azad University, Saveh Branch, Saveh, Iran

3 Faculty of Medical Sciences, Qom University, Qom, Iran


Bacteria make up about half of the living organisms inside of the rumen. However, they do more than half of the work in the rumen. The bacteria work together. Some breakdown certain carbohydrates and proteins which are then used by others. Some require certain growth factors, such as B-vitamins, which are made by others. Some bacteria help to clean up the rumen of others’ end products, such as hydrogen ions, which could otherwise accumulate and become toxic to other organisms. This is called “cross-feeding”. Rumen microbiological studies based on laboratory culture have contributed greatly to our understanding of how feeds are transformed into the VFA and microbial cells that provide nutrients to the cow. Over the last 20 years, the limitations of culture-based microbiological studies of almost all microbial habitats become apparent


Annison, E. F. & W. L. Bryden.(1998) Perspectives on ruminant nutrition and metabolism. Nutrition Research Reviews 11:173-198.
Bauchop, T. (1977) Foregut fermentation. In: R. T. J. Clarke and T. Bauchop (Ed.). Microbial Ecology of the Gut (pp. 223-250). London: Academic Press.
Church, D. C. (Ed.) (1988) The Ruminant Animal: Digestive Physiology and Nutrition. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Hespell, R. B. (1987) Biotechnology and modifications of the rumen microbial ecosystem. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 46:407-413.
Hungate, R. E. (1975) The rumen microbial ecosystem. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 6: 39-66.
Huffman, C.F, ReidJ.T. (1949) Some physical and chemical properties of Bovine saliva which may affect rumen digestion and synthesis Journal of Dairy Science Vol 32 (2) , p. 123-132.
Macy, J. M. & I. Probst. (1979) The biology of gastrointestinal bacteroides. Annual Review of Microbiology 33:561-594.
Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. (2005) Microbiology. Sixth Edition. New York: McGrawHill.
Russell, J.B. (1988) Microbiology of the Rumen. Animal Science 607 Class Notes, Cornell University.
Tajima, K., R. I. Aminov, T. Nagamine, K. Ogata, M. Nakamura, H. Matsui & Y. Benno. (1999) Rumen bacterial diversity as determined by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA libraries. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 29(2):159-169.
Thain, M. & M. Hickman. (2001) The Penguin Dictionary of Biology. Tenth Edition. London: Penguin Books.