Document Type : Original Article


Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, University of Tabriz, Iran


One of the main factors that cause to quality loss for fresh fruit market apples is bruise damage. Amongst the factors that affect apple sensitivity to bruising, major one is drop height and area profile during the impact. In the present study, four Iranian apple varieties consisted of Atirli, Kapak, Kowse and Paiez that were selected and 100 fruits of each variety were picked up, then apples were dropped from three heights and some mechanical properties such as bruise diameter, bruise height, rebound height, bruise energy percent, bruise coefficient of restitution, bruise resistant percent, bruise volume, bruise energy absorb and bruise contact above were tested and measured. The value of all features found to be different from variety to variety. As a result, Paiez variety was firmer than others. The maximum coefficient of static friction for MDF and the minimum was for PVC


Anonymous FAO (2007). FAOSTAT database. Available at
Bajema RW, Hyde GM (1998). Instrumented pendulum for impact characterization of whole fruit and vegetable specimens. Trans. ASAE. 41 (5), 1399–1405.
Blahovec J, Jeschke J, Houska M (1995). Mechanical properties of the flesh of sweet and sour cherries. Texture. stud. 26, 45-57.
Brusewitz GH, Bartsch JA (1989). Impact parameters related to postharvest bruising of apples. Trans. ASAE. 33, 953-957.
Chen H, Duprat F, Grotte M, Loonis D, Pietri E (1996). Relation of the impact transmission wave to the apple texture during ripening. Texture. stud. 27, 123-141.
Duprat F, Grotte M, Loonis D, Pietri E (2000). Étude de la possibilité de mesurer simultanément la fermeté de la Chair et de l'épiderme des pommes. Sci. Aliments. 20, 253-264.
Harker FR, Maindonald J, Murray SH, Gunson FA, Hallett IC, Walker SB (2006). Sensory interpretation of instrumental measurements 1: texture of apple fruit. Postharvest. Biol. Tech. 39, 185-192.
Holt JE, Schoorl D (1977). Bruising and energy dissipation in apples. Texture. Stud. 7, 421-432.
Kheiralipour K, Tabatabaeefar A, Mobli H, Rafiee S, Sharifi M, Jafari A, Rajabipour A (2008). Some physical and hydrodynamics properties of two varieties of apple (Malus domestica L.). International Agro
physics, 22, 225-229.
Mohsenin NN (1986). Physical Properties of Plant and Animal Materials: Structure, Physical Characteristics, and Mechanical Properties. Gordon and Breach Ink.
Rotz CA, Mohsenin NN (1978). A note on potential applications of physical properties of bruised tissue on apples for automated sorting. Trans. ASAE. 21(4), 790-792.
Schoorl D, Holt JE (1980). Bruise resistance measurements in apples. Texture. Stud. 11, 389-394.