Document Type: Original Article


Department of Plant Pathology, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran


Objective: Importance of management of gardens weeds is an issue that unfortunately has less been investigated by weeds researchers of country. One of the most important restrictive agents of cultivated surface and producing crops of Citrus orchards are weeds. Methods: In this investigation, isolates of Fusarium solani were recovered from diseased broomrape collected from tomato, eggplant, melon, and watermelon fields in Southern Khorasan. The pathogenicity of isolates was evaluated on Orobanche ramosa stem and seed. Fusarium damaged all of the developmental stages and prevented the damage that broomrape causes to plants. Results: The germination of inoculated seed was significantly reduced, germ tubes of microconidia penetrated all parts of the thick, complex seed testa, and seed contents were destroyed. Pathogenicity tests indicated that F. solani caused lesions of black soft rot and complete deterioration within 5-7 days (100%). They also attacked Orobanche seeds, arresting their germination and causing maceration of non-germinated and germinated seeds after 5-7 days of incubation. This is the first investigation of the effects of F. solani on host plant interactions with broomrape in melon.


Main Subjects

Abouzeid MA, Boari A, Zonno M, Vurro M, Evidente A (2004). Toxicity profiles of potential biocontrol agents of Orobanche ramosa. Weed Science 52 (3):326-332.
Amsellem Z, Kleifeld Y, Kerenyi Z, Hornok L, Goldwasser Y, Gressel J (2001). Isolation, identification, and activity of mycoherbicidal pathogens from juvenile broomrape plants. Biological Control 21 (3):274-284.
Andolfi A, Boari A, Evidente A, Vurro M (2005). Metabolites inhibiting germination of Orobanche ramosa seeds produced by Myrothecium verrucaria and Fusarium compactum. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
53 (5):1598-1603. doi:10.1021/jf048339i
Bedi JS, Donchev N (1991). Results of mycoherbicide control of sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) under glasshouse and feld conditions. In: Ransom
JK, Musselman LJ, Worsham AD, Parker C (eds) 5th International Symposium on Parasitic Weeds, Nairobi, Kenya, 1991. pp 76-82
BÈres I, Fischl G, Mikulas J (2000). Biological weed control with fungal pathogens in Hungary. Paper presented at the 20th German Conference on Weed Biology and Weed Control, Stuttgart-Hohenheim,
Germany, 14ñ16 March
Bozoukov H, Kouzmanova I (1993). Biological control of tobacco broomrape (Orobanche spp.) by means of some fungi of the genus Fusarium. Paper presented at the Third International Workshop on Orobanche and Related Stiga Research, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8ñ12 November
Duafala T, Wilhelm S, Gold AH, Sagen J (1976). Rhizoctonia disease of broomrape, a possible biological control American Phytopathologist, 1976. p 272
Farr DF, Bills GF, Chamuris GP, Rossman AY (1989). Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States. APS Press, St., Paul, MN, USA,pp.
Galdames R, Diaz J (2010). Stem rot of branched broomrape (Orobanche ramosa) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Chile. Plant Disease 94 (10):1266-1266.doi:10.1094/pdis-05-10-0370
Ghotbi M, AminiDehghan M, Ghotbi M (2011). Effect of nutritional regime on expression of pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum against Orobanche aegyptiaca Pers. International Journal of AgriScience 1 (4):012-031. 

Hadj Seyed Hadi M, Fazeli F, Taghi Darzi M, Shahmoradi R ( 2005.). Biological control of Orobanche aegyptiaca in tomato. Paper presented at the The Fourth World Congress on Allelopathy, NSW Australia, 21 - 26 August
Hasannejad S, Zad SJ, Alizade HM, Rahymian H (2006). The effects of Fusarium oxysporum on broomrape (Orobanche egyptiaca) seed germination.
Communications in agricultural and applied biological sciences 71 (3 Pt B):1295-1299.
Hodosy S (1981). Biological control of broomrape, Orobanche ramosa, a tomato parasite. I. Occurence and adaptability of Fusarium species to control broomrape in Hungary. Zoldsegtermesztesi Kutato Intzel Bulletinje 1421-29.
KaramPur F, Fasihi M, Heydari A-L. (2004). Identification of fungal pathogenic agents of broom rape on tomato fields. Tehran Leslie JF, Summerell BA, Bullock S (2006). The Fusarium laboratory manual, vol 2. Vol 10. Wiley Online Library,pp.
Linke KH, Scheibel C, Saxena MC, Sauerborn J (1992). Fungi occurring on Orobanche spp. and their preliminary evaluation for Orobanche control. Tropical Pest Management 38 (2):127-130.
Mazaheri A, Ershad J (1995). Reactions of different crops to Fusarium solani fungal pathogen of broomrape. Paper presented at the 12th Iranian Plant Protection Congress Karadj 2-7 September 1995
Mazaheri A, Vaziri M (1991). Studies on the chemical control of broomrape (Orobanche spp) in tobacco fields. 10th Plant Protection Congress of Iran Kerman 1-5 Sept1991.
Mehrabi Kushki A (2006) Applaication of antagonists Fusariun in biological control of bromrape. Tarbiat Modares, Tehran, Iran. M¸ller-Sch‰rer H, Scheepens PC, Greaves MP (2000). Biological control of weeds in European crops: recentachievements and future work Weed Research 40
(2002). Chlamydospores of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht
f. sp. orthoceras (Appel & Wollenw.) Bilai as inoculum for wheat-flour - Kaolin granules to be used for the biological control of Orobanche cumana Wallr. European Journal of Plant Pathology 108 (3):221-228.
Murasheva VN (1995). Influence of Fusarium oxysporum var. orthoceras [Appel. et Wr.] Bilai toxic properties on its vitality in soil and pathogenicity). Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya 29 (4):53-58.
Popova AA (1929). Diseases of the Tobacco Nicotiana rusticaL Morbi Plantarum 18 (1-2):45-53.
Press M, Graves J (1995). Parasitic Plants. Malcolm C. Press.292 pp.
Sauerborn J (1993). Natural antagonists for parasitic weed control in agroecosystems. In: integrated weed management for sustainable agricultur. Paper presented at the Indian Society of Weed Science International
Symposium, Hisar, India, 18ñ20 November
Sharma P, Rai PK, Siddiqui SA, Chauhan JS (2010). First report of Fusarium wilt in the broomrape parasite growing on Brassica spp. in India. Plant Disease 95 (1):75-75. doi:10.1094/pdis-07-10-0546
Shaw CG (1973). Host fungus index for the Pacific Northwest.1. Hosts Washington State Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin 7651-121.
Stojanovic D, Boric B (1981). Prilog proucavanju mikoflore parazitnih cvetnica iz rodova Cuscuta i Orobanche. [Contribution to the study of the mycoflora of
parasitic phanerogams from the genera Cuscuta and Orobanche]. Zastita Bilja 32 (2):135-145.
Thomas H, Heller A, Sauerborn J, Muller-Stover D (1999). Fusarium oxysporum f sp orthoceras, a potential mycoherbicide, parasitizes seeds of Orobanche cumana (Sunflower, Broomrape): a cytological study. Annals of
Botany 83 (4):453-458. doi:10.1006/anbo.1998.0847
Thomas H, Sauerborn J, Millerller-Stover D, Ziegler A, Bedi JS, Kroschel J (1998). The potential of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. orthoceras as a biological control agent for Orobanche cumana in sunfower. Biological Control
Zonno M, Vurro M (2002). Inhibition of germination of Orobanche ramosa seeds by Fusarium toxins.