Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Ms.c student of Animal Nutrition, Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Yasuj University, Yasuj, Iran

2 Assistant professore of Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Yasuj University, Yasuj, Iran

Abstract

This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of the oral consumption of guggulplant resin on the performance and humoral immunity response of broiler chicks. For doing this experiment, 320 one-day old chicks of the Cobb 500 strains, in a Completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates were used. Experimental diets include: control diet (without the guggul), control diet + 200 ppm guggul, control diet + 400 ppm guggul, control diets + 600 ppm guggul. Live body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were recorded at 21 and 42 d of experiment. To determine antibody titers against sheep red blood cell (SRBC) 1 ml of 3% suspension of sheep erythrocyte in phosphate buffer saline was injected into the wing veins at 29 and 35-day chicks. Treatments had significant effects on daily gain, feed conversion and feed intake during growth period (22-42 d). Treatments had significant effects on total antibody titers and IgY (p <0.05), but the effect of the treatments on the production of IgM was not significant. 6.The effect of the treatments on the bursa of Fabricius relative weight mean, was significant, but there was no significant effect on the spleen

Keywords

Al-ankari, A.S., Zaki, M.M. and Sultan, S.I. (2004). Use of habek mint (Mentha longifolia) in broiler chickens diets. Inter.Poultry Science, 3: 629-634.

Alcicek, A., Bozkurt, M., and Çabuk, M. (2003). The effect of an essential oil combination derived from selected herbs growing wild in Turkey on broiler performance. South African Journal ofAnimal Science, 33: 89-94.

Asif Saeed, M. and Sabir, A.W. (2004). Antibacterial activities of some constituents from oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora mukul. Fitoterapia, 75: 204-208.

Azeke, M. and Evetc Ekpo, K. (2009). Egg yolk cholesterol lowering effects of garlic and tea. Journal of MedicinalPlant Research, 12: 1113-1117.

Bauer, R. (1996). Echinacea drugs, effects and active ingredients. Z. Aerztl. Fortbild (Jena), 90: 111-115.

Cheema, M.A., Qureshi, M.A. and Havenstein, G.B. (2003). A Comparison of the Immune Response of a 2001 Commercial Broiler with a 1957 Randombred Broiler Strain When Fed Representative 1957 and 2001 Broiler Diets. Poultry Science Association, 9: 1591- 1529.

Cross, D.E., Mcdevitt, R.M., Hillman, K. and Acamovic, T. (2007). The effect of herbs and their associated essential oils on performance, dietary digestibility and gut microflora in chickens from 7 to 28 days of age. British Poultry Science, 48: 496 -506.

Delhanty, J.J. and Solomon, J. B. (1966). The nature of antibodies to goat erythrocytes in the developing chickens. Immunology, 11:103–113.

Dorman, H.J.D. and Deans, S.G. (2000). Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. Journal ofApplied Microbiology, 83: 308-316.

Garcia, V.P., Catala-Gregori, F., Hernandez, M., Megras, D. and Madrid, J. (2006). Effect of formic acid and plant extracts on growth, nutrient digestibility, intestine mucosa morphology, and meat yield of broilers. JournalApplied Poultry Resource, 16: 555 - 562.

The National Institute of Ayurvedic Medicine: Guggulu formulations. July (2002). Available from: http://www.niam.com/corp-web/guggulu.htm.

Glick, B. (1997). The bursa of Fabricius and immunoglobulin synthesis. Interactional Review of Cytology, 48: 345-402.

Hevener, W., Routh, P.A. and Almond, G.W. (1999). Effects of immune challenge on concentrations of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth performance in pigs. Journal of Canadian Veterinary, 40: 782-786.

Hobbes, C. (1989). The Echinacea Handbook. In =351-359: Miovich, M., (ed.). Eclectic Medical, Portland, 387.

Humprey, B.D., Koutso,. E.A. and Klasing, K.C. (2002). Requirement and priorities of the immune system for nutrients. Nutritional Biotechnology in the Feed and Food Industries,14: 69-77.

Ichikawa, H. and Aggarwal, B.B. (2006). Guggulsterone inhibits osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-K ligand and by tumor cells by suppressing Nuclear factor-K activation. Clinical Cancer Research, 12: 662–668.

Ipu, M.A., Akhtar, M.S., Anjumi, M.I. and Raja, M.L. (2006). New dimension of medicinal plants as animal feed. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 26: 144-148.

Jang, I.S., Ko, Y.H., Kang S.Y. and Lee, C.Y. (2007). Effect of commercial essential oil on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity and intestinal microflora population in broiler chickens. Animal FeedScience and Technology, 134: 304-3015.

Khalili, M., Vaez mahdavi, M., Kiasalari, Z. and ansari, F. (1388). The Effect of Long-Term Consumption of Commiphora Mukul Feeding on the Serum Levels of Glucose and Lipids of Diabetic Rats. Endocrinology and Metabolism Iranian, 71-77.

Lee, K.W., Everts, H., Kappert, H.J., Frehener, M., Losa, R. and Beynen, A.G. (2003). Effects of dietary essential oil component on growth performance, digestive enzymes and lipid metabolism in female broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, 44: 450-457.

Malhotra, S.C., Ahuja, M.M.S., Sundaram  K.R. (1977). Long term clinical studies on the hypolipidaemic effect of Commiphora mukul (guggulu) and clofi brate. IndianJournal of Medical Research, 65: 390–395.

Nie, W. and Zhang, Y.X.(1999). Progress of the immunomodulating effect of polysaccharides and their mechanism. Chinese Pharmacology Bulletin, 15: 3-5.

Rehman, J., Dillow, J.M., Carter, S.M., Chou, J.B., Le, B. and Maisel, A.S. (1999). Increased production of antigen-specific immunoglobulins G and M following in vivo treatment with the medicinal plants Echinacea angustifolia and Hydrastis canadensis. Immunology Letters, 68: 391-395.

Ruitang, D. (2007). Therapeutic effects of guggul and its constituent guggulsterone: cardiovascular benefits, Cardiovasc, Cardiovascular Drug Reviews, 25: 375–390.

Samman, S. and Cook, N.C. (1996). Flavonoidschemistry, metabolism, cardio protective effects, and dietary sources. Journal of Nutrition Biochemistry, 7: 66-76.

Satyavati, G.V. (1988). Gum guggul (Commiphora mukul) the success story of an ancient insight leading to a modern discovery. Indian Journal of Experimenal Biology, 87: 327–35.

Savage, T.F., Cotter,  P.F. and Zakrzewska, E.I. (1996). The effect of feeding mannan oligosaccharide on immunoglobulins, plasma IgG and bile IgI, of Wrolstad MW male turkeys. Poultry Science, 75: 143.

Schulte, K.E., Rucker, G. and Perlick, J. (1967). The presence of polyacetylene compounds in Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia DC. Arzneimittelforschung, 17: 825-829.

Stimple, M., Proksch, A., Wagner, H. and Lohmann- Matthes, M.L. (1984). Macrophage activation and induction of macrophage cytoxicity by purified polysaccharide fractions from the plant Echinacea purpurea. Infection Immunology, 46: 845-849.

Takahashi, K., Mashiko, T. and Akiba, Y. (2000). Effects of dietary concentration of xylitol on growth in male broiler chicks during immunological stress. Poultry Science, 79: 743-747.

Wang, X., Greilberger, J., Ledinski, G., Kager, G., Paigen, B. and Jurgens, G. (2004). The hypolipidemic natural product Commiphora mukul and its component guggulsterone inhibit oxidative modification of LDL. Atherosclerosis, 172: 239-46.

Yamamoto, Y., and Glick, B. (1982). A comparison of the immune response between two lines of chickens selected for differences in the weight of the bursa of Fabricius. Poultry Science, 61: 2129–2132.

Zhu, N., Rafi, M.M., Dipaola, R.S., Xin, J., Chin, C.K., Badmaev, V., Ghai, G., Rosen, R.T. and ho, C.T. (2001). Bioactive constituents from gum guggul (Commiphora wightti), Phytochemistry, s: 723.