Document Type: Review Article

Author

Assistant Professor of Geography Department of Mashhad, Payame Noor University (PNU), Iran

Abstract

There are many trends in making an ecological city all around the word, one of important cases in this approach is safe and health water. According by definitions, safe and potable water is water needed for conducting the activities of man. Potable water is the most important renewable sources and this resource plays important role for survival of most living organisms as well as man based on supplying the water requirements and irrigation water. By development of urbanization, today, the subject of sources management in the civil areas has been remarkably considered and this paper has been written by that vision. Progress in the urban living made irretrievable damages to the nature and treated many natural sources. One of the most important of these factors includes water pollution and its sources. Water safety, and preventing its pollution and its lost is one of the most important issues in our  era, Water  contamination is considered as a great environmental complication encountered with due to day-to-day progress of industries and technology. This paper aims to investigate the existing concepts,    factors making the contaminations, alternatives such as managerial methods, existing challenges, and recommendations in the field of preventing and reducing the contamination of water sources and using safe water.

Keywords

 -Absan Tasfieh Technical and Engineering Group (ATTEG). 2010. Water hygiene in disasters. Tehran, Iran: Interior Press, Annual Review of Company’s projects No.39, 129-148.
 -Absan Tasfieh Technical and Engineering Group (ATTEG). 2010. Integrated water management a way for preventing the pollutions.Tehran, Iran: Sadr Press, 27-29.
 -Alizadeh, M. 2003. Introduction of laboratory methods for measuring water pollution. Tehran, Iran: Moje Sabz Press, 78-89.
 -Bahrami, M. 2003. Future status of Tehran. Qeshm, Iran: Khazra Press, Matin Company subordinate to Ministry of Power, 178-181.
 -Elhassadi. A. 2008. Pollution of water resources from industrial effluents: a case studyBenghazi, Libya. Desalination 222: 286-293.
 -Esmailli, Sari. A. 2002. Pollutants, hygiene, and the environment standards. Isfahan, Iran: Naqshe Mehr press, 123-128.
 -Faal, Z. 2008. Studying the pollution resources and water quality of Shadgan pond on the basis of water quality indicator system. The first national congress of Iran’s ponds, Azad university of Ahvaz branch, 456-462.
 -Madani Larijani, K. 2009. Water sources management an alternative for existing crisis in Iran: Annual Report of Ministry of Power. Tehran, Iran: Interior press, 340-350.
 -Ministry of Force, MOF. 2007. Strategies for National Water Management. Tehran, Iran: Water Planning Office, Water Affairs Department, 136-148 .
 -Moradinezhad, A, Aqarazi H. 2002. Surveying the drought in the Markazi Province. Water and Waste Water Magazine, The consultant engineers to this project and water and waste water researches. 44:20-26.
 -Safavi, H.R. 1998. Integrated water management in urban environment. water and sewage magazine, No. 28, 245-256.
 -Samadyar, H. 2008. Water sources management. second conference and special fair of environment engineering, Tehran, Iran: Sadr Press, 200-220.
 -Sharzehei, G. 2008. Studying the global experiences on management of water demand, A report of water waste of Iran. Tehran, Iran: ABFA press, 232-240.
 -Water Sources Management Company, WSMC. 2010. Challenges of water section of country. Tehran, Iran: Nashre-e Vije, 18-27.
 -Water sources management Company, WSMC. 2003. Approaches for long term development of water sources in country. Tehran, Iran: Saeb Press, 23-25; 59-68.