Document Type : Original Article


Department of Range and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran


Objective: To evaluate the effect of chemical stimuli on germination and seedling growth of Caper (Capparis Spinosa) under drought stress. Methods: Factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with four replicates per treatment were performed. First factor of priming include three levels of acetylsalicylic acid (300, 200 and 100 mg/L), gibberellic acid levels (500, 250 and 125 ppm), ascorbic acid levels (300, 200 and 100 mg/L) and distilled water as a control and the second factor was drought stress levels (0, -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 MPa). Results: The results showed that priming increases germination rate, germination percent, root length, seedling length, shoot length and seed vigor index under drought stress. Among of levels used in priming, acetylsalicylic acid 200 mg/L has greatest effect on the germination of plants under drought stress. According to the survey results, priming with salicylic acid compared with other acids have more effect on germination characteristics of Caper under drought stress. Conclusions: Thus, using of this method can be useful for improving seed germination characteristics of plants in arid and semi-arid regions.


Abdolshahi A., Majd M. H., S. Rad. J., Taheri M., Shabani A., da Silva J. A. T.. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2013. 1-6.
Afzal, I., 2005. Seed enhancements to induced salt tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Ph.D. Thesis, Agricultural University of Faisalabad, Pakistan, 266 p.Agraval, R., 2005. Seed technology. Oxford and IBH
Publishing Co, 829p.
Agrawal, P.K and Dadlani,M. 1992. Techniques in seed (science and technology). South Asian Publishers, 209p.
Ashraf, M and Foolad, M.R. 2005. Pre sowing seed treatment Ashotgun approach to improve germination, plant growth, and crop yield under saline and non saline conditions. Advances in agronomy. 88: 223-265.
Baalbaki, R.Z., Zurayk, R.A., M.M. Blelk, M.M. and Tahouk, S.N. 1999. Germination and seedling development of drought tolerant and susceptible wheat under moisture stress. Seed sciences and technology. 27: 291-302.
Bayoumi, T. Y., H. Manal & E.M. Metwali, 2008. Application of physiological and biochemical indices as a screening techniqus for drought tolerance in wheat
genotypes. African journal of biotechnology, 14: 2341-2352.
Borsani, O., J. Cuartero., V. Valpuesta & M.A. Botella, 2002.
Tomato tosl mutation identifies a gene essential for osmotic tolerance and abscisic acid sensitivity. Plant Journal. 32, 905-914.
Cirac, C., A.K. Ayan & K. Kevseroglu, 2004. The effects of light and some presoaking treatments on germination rate of st. John Worth seeds. Pakistan Journal Biology Science. 7: 182-186.
Demiral, T., & I,Turkan, 2005. Comparative lipid peroxidant, antioxidant systems and praline content in roots of two rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance, Environment Experiment Botany. 53, 247-257.
Esvand, H.R. 2008. Effect of seed priming on seed old physiological quality under drought stress wheat grass. Ph.D. dissertion agriculture. Department of agriculture, university of Tehran.
Fang, J., Wu, F., Yang, w., Zhang, J. and Cia, H. 2012. Effects of drought on the growth and resource use efficiency of two endemic species in an arid ecotone. Acta ecologica sinica, 32(4): 195-201.
Fetri M. , Dargahikhoo A., Rajabi M. Effect of drought and salinity tensions on germination and seedling growth of Common Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) in laboratory conditions. International journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research. 2(2), 2014: 383-391.
Hus, J.L and Sung,JM. 1997. Antioxidant role of glutatnione associated with accelerated agina and hydration of triploid Warermelon seeds. Physiologa
plantarum. 100: 967-974.
Imani A.F., Sardoei A. S., Shahdadneghad M. Effect of H2SO4 on Seed Germination and Viability of Canna indica L. Ornamental Plant. International journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research. 2(1), 2014: 223-229.
ISTA., 2002. International rules of seed testing. seed science and Tecnology. 20:53-55.
Kafe,M., A. Nezamy., H. Hoseine & A. Masome, 2005. Physiological effects of drought stress by polyethylene glycol on germination of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) genotypes. Journal Iran of research Agronomy.3:69-80. Kaur, S., A.K. Gupta & N.Kaur, 2000. Effect of GA3, kinetin and indole acetic acid on carbohydrate metabolism in chickpea seedlings germination under water stress. Plant growth Regulator. 30: 61-70.
Kazemepoor, N and Orvin,M.J. 1998. Effect of drought and salt stress on germination and seedling growth of Vetch (Vicia sp.). The eight Conference of iran Biology. 800-810.
Kolsarıcı, 2006. Seed treatments to overcome salt and drought stress during germination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).Europ. Journal. Agronomy. 24:291–295.
Li, j., Yin, L.Y., Jongsma, M.A. and Wang, C.Y. 2011. Effects of light, hydropriming and abiotic stress on seed germination, and shoot and root growth of pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium). Industrial crops and
products, 34(3): 1543-1549.
Maraghni , M., M. Gorai & M.Neffati, 2010. Seed germination at different temperatures and water stress levels, and seedling emergence from different depths of Ziziphus lotus. South African Journal of Botany. 76(3):453-459.
Mauromicale, G. & H. Cavallaro, 1997. A comparative study of the effects of different compounds on priming of tomato seed germination under suboptimal
temperatures. Seed science and technology. 25: 399 –408.
McDonald, M.B. 2000. Seed priming. ln 'black, m. g. d. bewley. (eds) . seed technology and lts biological basis.
Sheffield academic press, Sheffield, uk, pp, 287 -325. Michel, B.E & M.R, Kaufman, 1973. The osmotic potential of polyethylene glycol 6000. Plant physiology.51:914-916.
Miri A., Rad J. S., M. S. Rad, da Silva J.A. T.. Allelopathic activity of medical plant, Cardaria draba (Lepidium draba L.). Annals of Biological Research, 2013, 4 (6):76-79.
Murungu, F.S., P. Nyamugafata., C. Chiduza., L.J. Clark & W.R, Whalley, 2003. Effects of seed priming aggregate size and soil matric potential on emergence of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). Soil and Till. Res. 74: 161- 168.
Netondo , G. W., J. C. Onyango & E. Beck, 2004. Sorghum and salinity : I. Response of growth, water relation, and ion accumulation to NaCl salinity . Crop Science. 44:797-805.
Nun NB, Plakhine D, Joel D, Mayer A (2003) Changes in the activity of the alternative oxidase in Orobanche seeds during conditioning and their possible physiological function. Phytochemistry 64:235-241.
Rad J. S., Alfatemi M. H., Rad M.S., Sen D. J.. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Evaluation of the Essential Oils and Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Flower and Stem of Sinapis arvensis L. American Journal of
Advanced Drug Delivery. 2013. 1(1).1-10.
Rad J. S., Rad M. S., da Silva J.A. T. Effects of Exogenous Silicon on Cadmium Accumulation and Biological Responses of Nigella sativa L. (Black Cumin). Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis.In Press. 2014.
Rad J. S., Rad S. M., Miri A.. Regulation of the Expression of Nitrate Reductase genes in Leaves of Medical plant, Foeniculum vulgare by Different Nitrate Sources. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences.
Rad J.S., Rad M. S., da Silva J.A. T.. Evaluation of allelopathic effects of methanolic extracts from Salicornia herbacea seed and leaves on germination and seedling growth in vitro of two medicinal plants and two weeds.
Environmental and Experimental Biology (2014) 12: 83–87.
Rad, J. S., Alfatemi S. M. H., Rad, M. S., Iriti M.. 2014. Free Radical Scavenging and Antioxidant Activities of Different Parts of Nitraria schoberi L. Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature, 4(1): 44-51.
Rad, M. S. Rad, J. S. 2013. Effects of Abiotic Stress Conditions on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Medical Plant, Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.). International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences,
5(21): 2593-2597.
Senaratna, T., D. Touchel., E. Bumm & K. Dixon, 2000. Acetyl salicylic acid induces multiple stress tolerance in bean and tomato plants. Plant growth regulation. 30: 157-161.
Shah J (2003) The salicylic acid loop plant defense. Curr opin Plant Biol. 6: 365-371.
Smirnoff, N. & G.L.Wheeler , 2000. Ascorbic acid in Plants: biosynthesis and function, Critical reviews in plant sciences. 19: 267-290.
Smirnoff, N., 1996. The function and metabolism of ascorbic acid in plants, Annals of botany. 78: 661-669.
Tobe, K., Li, X & K.Omasa, 2000. Seed germination and radicle growth of a halophyte, Kalidium capsicum (Chenopodiaceae). Annals of botany. 85: 391-396.
Toker, C., S. Ulger., M. Karhan., H. Canci & O. Akdesir., N, Ertoy & M.I. Cagirgan, 2004. Comparison of some endogenous hormone levels in different parts of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Genet Resour Crop. 52, 233-237.
Uniyal, R.C and Nautiyal, A.R. 1998. Seed germination and seedling extension growth in (Ougeinia dalbergioides Benth.) under water and salinity stress. New Forests. 17,265–272.
Yuan SUN, Y., Y. Jian SUN., M. Tian wang, X. Yi LI., X. Guo & R.E. Hu, 2010. Effects of Seed Priming on Germination and Seedling Growth Under Water Stress in Rice. Acta Agronomica Sinica. 36(11): 1931-1940.
Zeng, Y.J., Wang, Y.R & J.M. Zhang, 2010. reduced seed germination due to water limitation a special survival strategy used by xerophytes in arid dunes. Journal of Arid environments. 74(4): 508-511